Solitude of a Black Buddha: Karumady Kuttan and Kerala

Cultural legacies of Kerala: Pagoda erected by Dalai Lama above the 7/8th century black granite buddha at Karumady in Alapuzha district of Kerala. This idol was recovered from muddy paddy fields. It was mutilated and buried deep in mud by the violent Hindu henchmen in the 8th cntury. 20 Oct 2012
The black buddha at Karumady is called Karumady Kuttan. The place name Karumady itself is related to Karu or idol as in Karunagapally in the south. Kuttan is a colloquial form of Puthan/Buddhan. place names like Kuttankulangara, Kuttanellur etc. are other buddhist sites spread all over Kerala. Kuttanad itself is named after Kuttan or Buddhan as the land of Buddha.
The idol faces west and the Alapuzha – Kollam canal. It was recovered from muddy fields nearby in early 20th century and became a local deity ever since. Kuttan Kuthu is a pest affecting the paddy. People offer flowers and oil to Kuttan/Buddhan and pray before the idol for getting rid of minor diseases and pest attacks on crops.
Half undone by Brahmanic henchmen: clear marks of mutilation on the partially demolished sculpture in black granite. Historians have dated it to 7/8th century AD. Experts like P C Alexander and S N Sadasivan who have written the history of Buddhism in Kerala, argue that it retains the Anuradhapura style of Srilanka. The exquisite handwork of stone-sculptors from the Eelam is tangible says some cultural observers. Anyway it is the foundation of figurative stone-sculpture in Kerala. Its human figuration and animate pose are highly stylized and evocative.
The peaceful and solemn face retains its grace and smile even after a millennium of violent mutilations and obliteration. The open scars of mutilation are visible all over the sculpture. Half of it is still missing. Local Avarna people offer it  flowers and they decorate the missing Jwala on the head with Ixora blossoms in a sensitive way. The idol retains remarkable similarities to that of Mavelikara, Kayamkulam, Pallikal and Thyagannur in Tamil Nadu.
As a new Amana/Chamana: Artist Anirudh Raman before the Karumady Kuttan shrine. 20 Oct 2012
The lambs of buddha appeared out of the blue. buddha saved the lambs by showing his own throat to the executioner at a brahmanical yaga ritual. That was the beginning of his critique of the Yaga-yajna ritualism and obscurantism of Brahmanism. Karumady 20 Oct 2012.  Photo: Anirudh Raman
Before the buddha at Karumady. 20 Oct 2012. Photo: Anirudh Raman


Jain Sage in a Hindu Temple: Paruvassery Pallyara

Jaina Thirthankara idol in Paruvassery Pallyara Bhagavathy temple, Vadakanchery, 26 Jan 2012

Paruvassery temple near Vadakanchery in Alathur taluk of Palakad district is an ancient shrine of Jain antiquity.  It is around 5km north of Vadakanchery town on NH 47 between Thrissur and Palakkad.  It is locally called Pallyarakavu showing clear linkages to Pally the Pali word signifying a non Hindu sacred space.  The key word Kavu also signify the Buddhist antiquity of the shrine as Kavu means Kanyakavu or Kanyastree or the Buddhist nun the Bhikuni who nurtured the sacred groves from Asokan times onwards in Kerala. Now it is a Hindu temple and is called Pallyara Bhagavathy temple where the idol of the goddess is worshiped in the central shrine.  The granite idol of the Jain Thirthankara is placed  outside the Nalambala complex in a roofless shrine towards north west.  It is facing east.  The temple is facing north and is surrounded by wooded domestic plots.  There is also a Siva temple nearby with a small sacred grove with Naga deities and a large pond nearby.

Paruvassery Pallyarakavu temple, Thirthankara shrine towards left, outside the complex

The temple overlooks vast paddy fields and a lotus pond.  Nelliampathy Mountains dote the background with a few Palmyra palms in the foreground.  A Pipal and mango tree stand before the temple in deep embrace.  When I visited the place with friend Madhavadas from Thrissur in the evening of 26 Jan 2012 there were plenty of birds around.  Parakeets and Mynas were vocal on the great Pipal.  Jacanas were busy in the drying lotus pond.  Small Green Bee-eaters were sitting pretty on the electric wire as if they were ruminating over the Sramana past of the place.  Palm swifts were flying around and egrets were returning to their roosts.

Open shrine in which Thirthankara idol is kept outside the Paruvassery Pallyarakavu temple

The Jina idol is in black granite and is around two feet high.  Yaksha and Yakshi figures adorn its left and right.  The iconic three-tied umbrella is clearly visible over the head of the sage.  This Jain marker confirms the religious affiliation of the statue.  The Jina is seated in Padmasana and early interpreters like Anujan Achan in Ramavarma Research Institute Bulletin Vol. VI, Part II, Trichur mistook the image as that of Buddha.  But his prudent observation on the Buddhist antiquity of the regions close to Kutiran and Vadakum Nadhan shrine are still valid. As in the case of other Jain centres like Iringalakuda it could be having a Jain interim period from eighth to fifteenth century CE. Iringalakuda was modified into a Brahmanical shrine after the 1340 floods under the chairmanship of Azhvancheri.

The face and head of the relief is mutilated and it could be a clear imprint of obliteration attempts during the takeover and conversion of the temple into a Hindu Brahmanical one.  This mutilation mark is also similar to the destructive mark on the Jina image at Kallil temple near Perumbavur and the half demolished Buddha at Karumady, popularly known as karumady Kuttan.

Ayyappa shrine near Pallyara temple. Said to be Swayambhu. Having Jain and Buddhist antiquity

Historians and researchers like M R Raghava Varier, K T Ravivarma, V V K Valath and others have recorded and written extensively on the Jain antiquity of Paruvassery Bhagavathy temple.  It shows the modification of Sramana shrines into Hindu Brahmanical temples that occurred in the period from 8-12thcenturies in Kerala.  The general pattern is changing the sub deities of goddesses or Yakshis attending the Thirthankaras into main deities called Bhagavathy or goddess and cleverly excluding and erasing the main deity in a systematic way.  Another small shrine towards a few miles east now dedicated to Ayyappa is also having Jain and Buddhist antiquity as it is referred as Swayambhu or self originate.  The pre existing Sramana temples and idols were termed as Swayambhu by Brahmanism all over south India. The examples at Kallil and Paruvassery show such iconographic and architectural modifying strategies of Brahmanical invasion, amnesia and erasure in Kerala.

Madhavadas before Paruvassery Pallyara temple


Ravivarma, K T.  Pandathe Malayalakara

Valath, V V K.  Thrissur Jilla

—-.  Palakad Jilla

Variar, M R. Jainamatam Keralatil

Nelliampathy ranges beyond the paddyfields at Paruvassery