This mountain top rising up to 1000 m above sea level at the border of Kottayam and Iduki districts in Kerala is the site of rare geographical wonder. It still houses an ancient check dam or Chira on the top of the grasslands sprawling on three mountain peaks and their joint summit called Mankunnu, Kodayatur Mala and Tonipara. In place names Chiras are associated with ancient Buddhist water management. This is called Elaveezha Poomchira or Ilaveezhapoonchira the floral pool or small dam; where leaves do not fall into it as it is on the grassland top of the mountain. The shola forest patches are there in the crevices and creeks of the mountain grass tops just below the grassland shola peaks.
There is a sacred grove shrine by the small floral lake or Poomchira. There are ancient Naga deities in granite by shola trees. Buddha as Naga Appan or Nagaraja Boddhisatva and Mahamaya as Naga Yakshi are still seen in Hinduized ways there by the trees. There are also ancient crude rock votive stupas nearby. The small pagoda is now dedicated to the fierce Hindu goddess Kali and the shrine is now called Kali and Krishna “temple.” Such fierce modifications might have happened in the late middle ages when the ancient Keezhmalai Nadu was annexed to Vadakumkoor in the early seventeenth century and subsequently to Travancore in the mid-eighteenth century.
This mountain peak is some 20 km from Todupuzha the capital of Iduki in the plains; it is some 50 km from Kottayam. Now a new road is being built linking it from Melukavu and Todupuzha. Till the early seventeenth century, this was part of the ancient Keezhmalai Nadu and place names like Muttam, Kodaytur, Koovapally, Elapally, Pallykanam and Ellykal Kallu etc. show ancient toponymical linkages to Buddhism as there are many Pallys or modified place names here. Muttam and Vattam represent the well-rounded stupa of Buddhism. Relics of ancient stones and menhirs and stupa-like worshiping stones also prove the archaeological presence of Buddhist cultural relics here.
Ellykal Kallu or Illykal Kallu is also said to be a later modification of Pallykal Kallu as Pallykanam is now changed into Pullykanam misusing the British English spelling as in Pullyvasal in Munnar. It must be remembered that such ancient bunds and dams using rammed earth are still surviving in Achan Kovil forests and Kulatupuzha forests near ancient Kattilapara or carved rock vestiges associated with Buddhism. The proximity to Pallykanam and Vagaman and the closeness to Moolamatam and Kodayatur are also linkages to the ancient trade-cultural routes between Chera and Pandya lands. The presence of Mala Araya tribal people closely associated with the Buddhist shrine of ancient Chavarimala or Savarimala now Ramafied as Shabarimala is also remarkable.
Illikkal Kallu is an ancient rock formation rising to 1000 m above sea level at the eastern mountain ranges in Kottayam district in Meenachil Taluk bordering with Idukki district. Many tributaries of the river Meenachil are also orginating from the grasslands of this rock caped mountain. It is also close to Vagaman mountains and Ilaveezhapoonchira peak. The enigmatic shrub Neelakoduveli is believed to be growing on its crevices.
The place name Illikkal Kallu refers to Illi or the thorny bamboo. But this variety of bamboo does not grow on such altitude above 1000 m on grass land tops or sholas and rocky peaks in particular on the Western Ghats. It is a miserable mockery that the tourism lobby is now planting a few bamboos there. Only the elephant grass and alpine date palms or Eendu grow on these grassland tops. There are a few giant reeds (‘Ottal or Odal’) in the lower stretches and slopes of this range. So Illi or bamboo cannot become the key element in the place name anyhow. Thus the place name seems to have changed or modified in modern times. Considering the ecological and geo strategic location and proximity to ancient trade routes to Tamilakam or the ancient Tamil Pandya country across the the Western Ghats from the Chera land or Kerala the original place name seems to be Pallykal Kallu or the ancient rock at the vicinity of the Vihara. Especially when we consider the surrounding place names like P(u)allykanam, Elapally and Eendupally it is all the more clear. Pally affix in place names are changed gradually to either Pilly or Pully misusing the British spelling ‘u’ or slight changes in local articulation to erase the history of Buddhism by the hegemonic consensus.
Teekoyi which is a small town near this place is also an altered version of Teekovil the pagoda of fire. Kozhikod was originally Kovilkod and Koyilandy was Kovilaandi in the north. The Poonchira another peak nearby is also having a Buddhist connection as the Chira or dams and irrigation bunds for water management in ancient Kerala and Tamilakam were designed and made in eco-conservative ways by the nuns and monks of Asoka from BC third century onward along with their sacred groves or Sangha Aramas that precipitated later as the Kavu culture of Kerala. The elaborate archaeological and ecological relics of Buddhist conservation culture as in Amaram Kavu named after Amara Simha the author or Amarakosa and the ancient rock temple and Gajotama or Ganes temple in Karikod near Todupuzha are reminiscent of the Buddhist age.
The rock faces and formations at Illikkal Kallu or Pallykal Kallu resemble the head of the Buddha in many ways and angles. The face and tuft of hair (Ushnisha) are clear and the tuft also looks like a seated lion roaring, again symbolizing the Sakya Simha speaking to the world. Perhaps that is why the rock was called Pallykal Kallu before the modern age. There were many Viharas or Pallys on the Western Ghats as in Pallykanam or Eendupally on these grass land tops. Kutikanam or the Kanam or wooded grassland top with a Kuti or Pagoda is another example in southern ranges. Many rock heads have fallen. Some rocks look like mushroomed umbrella and are called Kuda Kallu popularly by the Mala Araya tribals. Some are called hunchbacks or Koonan Kallu. It is remarkable to note that Kuda or ceremonial umbrella is another key symbol in Buddhism. The ancient Stupas and gateways carried three, four, five or eight umbrellas. Kodaikanal got its name from the Kodai or umbrella icon of Buddhism. There are Pally affixes in the house names of the Mala Arayas.
Another smaller rock nearby is called Ayyanpara or the rock of Ayya or Arya Buddha. In the middle ages these shrines were taken over by Saivism. Maramala falls is also nearby which is now shortened and distorted in articulation and meaning as Marmala. Mara and his daughter Mohini tested the Buddha with their sensual song and dance and he assumed the down to earth posture or Bhumi Saparsa Mudra peacefully conquering the trials of the senses. There are several places related to Mara in Kerala like Maramon, Maraparambu, Marayimuttom, Mararikulam etc. The traditional percussionist caste is also called Marar or the people of Mara hinting at their song and dance traditions.
This unique geological and eco cultural location must be conserved very carefully from the business interests of the tourism industry and must be conserved for future generations and the future of the river Meenachil and the planes fed by the river.