Tag Archives: Buddhist architecture in Kerala

Architectural and Iconographic Relics of Buddhism in Kerala

Like a floating pagoda: Ananthapura temple, Kasaragod

Most of the temples that are a thousand years old are modified Buddhist temples in Kerala.  According to historians Brahmanism came and converted the temples from 8th to 16th centuries.  Buddhism and Jainism came to south India as early as BC 3rd century and established the early Sramana civilization of Kerala that was casteless and democratic.  They also spread literacy and scripts in ancient Tamilakam.

Gautamapuram temple, Kottayam

Pali, Sanskrit, Ayurveda, Vasthuvidya, Visual arts and music that flourished in Kerala were legacies of Buddhism and Jainism.  Kerala gave birth to some of the leading intellectuals of Buddhism including architects, astrologers and medical practitioners.

A seated Boddhisatva on the wall of Ananthapura temple

A Sreedhara Menon in his official History of Kerala observes that the present Hindu temples in Malabar resemble the architectural style of Sramana temples (Menon 99).  The temples of Kasaragod show this remarkable similarity and the missing link.  In his linguistic and cultural analytical work Budddh’s Footprints, Prof. P O Purushothaman through his linguistic archeology affirms that all the ancient monuments of worship in Kerala were originally related to Buddhism and Jainism ( Purushothaman 50-51).

Seema Malaka lake temple, Srilanka

 Ananthapura temple near Kumbala looks exactly like a Buddhist lake temple.  Its replicas could be found all over Asia as far as China, Japan, Korea and Thailand.  The reliefs on the wall of the shrine also show some Buddhist motifs including the figures of Boddhisatvas, though slightly modified many times in the last millennium during the renovations.

Kilirur temple shrine housing Buddha relief, in Gaja Prishta style (simple)

The legend that associates this temple with Padmanabha temple,Thiruvananthapuram also proves the Buddhist past of this temple as Padmanabha temple was a Buddhist temple before the 8thcentury.  A reclining Padmapaani (lotus in hand) Buddha idol was modified into a Padmanabha (lotus from the navel) Vishnu icon (Ayyappan, Jayaprakas, Jose).

Gaja Prishta style: Madhur temple, Kasaragod

The ancient practice of keeping the crocodile in the pond also enacts the conservationist spirit of Buddhism that established hospitals even for animals and birds as testified by the second edict of Asoka in which Kerala is mentioned in connection with wild life conservation. The word Anantha found in both place names could be a later modification of Aananda (Buddha’s foremost disciple and also the Buddhist concept of “bliss and joy”).  Any way the temple even today looks exactly like a Japanese lake temple or a floating Korean Buddhist pagoda.

Ananthapura temple, Kasaragod

The Hindu temples at Adur and Madhur in Kasaragod district also show marked architectural affiliations to Buddhist and Jain monuments.  The three-tiered sanctorum in Gaja Prishta style in both the temples; is often linked to the Sramana architectural style by archeologists (Sarkar 23).  The same Gaja Prishta (elephant butt) style is also surviving in many other Hindu temples with Buddhist past as in Kilirur temple in Kottayam in south Kerala.

Adur temple, Kasaragod. Gaja Prishta style

A close comparative study of the ancient monuments in Kerala reveals the fact that the temple architecture and ritual practices were appropriated from the Sramana traditions of Jainism and Buddhism.  Religion, power and politics were misused for this take over by the forces of internal imperialism.

Buddha recovered at Pallikal Bharanikavu, Kayamkulam. C. 7th century AD

 Cheat, usurpation, violence and unimaginable barbarism were also employed for this erasing act. But somehow it is still violently re-enacted in carnivals like Kodungallur Bharani in which low castes are given one-day license to invade and pollute the shrine after drunken and obscene parleys.  The altars inside the present shrine still shows the lotus carvings that prove that it was the seat of a Buddhist idol, says experts (Valath).

Buddha as Krishna in Kilirur temple, Kottayam

Brahmanism with the help of tribal chieftains, servile militia and petty kings converted these temples around 8th and 9thcenturies.  The partially damaged Buddhist idols and Jain reliefs recovered from central and south Kerala testify this bloody and fierce invasion that subverted the ethical and egalitarian democratic culture of Kerala that began in BC third century with the arrival of Sramana monks.

A Japanese Buddhist shrine in a pond of white lotuses

But the lasting imprints of the Sramana culture are still tangible and visible in the folk as well as classical architecture and ritualistic practices all over Kerala in connection with ancient temples and carnivals (Valath).  The Mamankam of Thirunavaya, Kettukazhcha of horses and oxen found in Thrissur and Kollam, Annamkettu and Paravathookam of Kottayam and Alapuzha districts are all abiding articulations of the ancient Sramana democratic culture of Kerala.

Mavelikara Buddha idol. c. 8th century AD


Ayyappan, A.  “Padmanabha Vigraham.” Mathrubhumi Weekly.  April 8, 1984.

Jayaprakas, M S. Padmanabha Kshetra Vivadam.  Trivandrum: BSP, 2011.

Jose, Dalitbandhu N K. Sripadmanabha Kshetranidhi Arutethu?  Trivandrum: Bahujan Vartha,  2011.

Menon, Sreedhara. Kerala Charithram.  Kottayam: DCB, 2010.

Purushothaman, P O. Buddhante Kalpadukal.  Kottayam: Current Books, 2006.

Sarkar. Temple Architecture in Kerala.  Trivandrum:  Govt of Kerala,1998.

Valath, V V K. Thrissur Jilla. Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi, 2008.

Buddha as Krishna: Kilirur Temple and Kerala History

Western gateway of Kilirur temple, Kottayam

Kilirur temple stands on a laterite hill surrounded by waterways and canals.  It is so close to the backwaters of lake Vembanad that forms the heart of Kuttanad. Kuttanad is also well known as the land of Kuttan or Putan; rustic names for the Buddha.  The Kilirur or Kiliroor temple is locally called Kilirur Kunnummel Bhagavathy temple (hilltop temple of the goddess).  It is just 8 km west of Kottayam town. Etymologically Kilirur means Kilirna Ur or the village on a raised land strip as it is a tiny hillock amidst the wetlands of Kuttanad.

central temple enshrining the goddess. Oiginally Mahamaya, Karthyayani after 16th century.

The uniqueness of the temple is the relief of the Buddha inside a shrine now dedicated to Krishna. The idol of Krishna also looks like a Yogic Avalokitesvara in Padmasana. The shrine is in Gaja Prishta architectural style (resembling the butt of a standing elephant) that is associated with temples of Buddhist antiquity.  It is facing east and the northern door is marked for Sri Buddha, but remains closed.

The present deity called Bhagavati in the central shrine originally built by Pallybanar for Mahamaya

The present deity called Bhagavati in the central shrine originally built by Pallybanar for Mahamaya

There is also an ancient sacred grove and Naga deities towards the east of the temple compound on the hillock.  Some of the former lords who were in charge of the temple are still known as Pallymenavans and all of them are non-Brahmans.

Ancient Naga deities in the Sarpa Kavu on the east of the Kilirur temple. A relic of nature worship and conservation related to Buddhism

According to historians and researchers this was one of the last surviving Buddhist temples in central Kerala along with Nilamperur Pally Bhagavathy temple (Ilankulam, Ravivarma, Valath, Ajunarayanan,  Sugathan, Sadasivan).  Both these Buddhist temples were patronized by Pallyvana Perumal, a Chera prince of the 16th century, whose image wasl worshiped in Nilamperur till recently.

Sapta Kanya or seven virgins. Originally nuns or Bhikshunis who pioneered Buddhist missionary work in Kilirur under the leadership of Pallyvana Perumal.  Yellow robes and turmeric powder still used to worship them.

Sadasivan says that the Bhagavathy of the central shrine was originally the idol of queen Mahamaya the mother of the enlightened one.  Pallyvana Perumal was a devotee of the mother of the affectionate one and thus he placed her at the centre of the temple.

Mahamaya the mother of Buddha, now moved to a subshrine and called Madhatil Bhagavati. Madham in Kerala was originally a Buddhist monastery or nunnery as in Kanya Madham or Kanyakavu.

Mahamaya the mother of Buddha, now moved to a subshrine and called Madhatil Bhagavati. Madham in Kerala was originally a Buddhist monastery or nunnery as in Kanya Madham or Kanyakavu.

It is also remarkable that there is no Namputhiri Illams in Kilirur and even the Brahman priests who do their service in the temple never stayed in the place though they do daily worshiping rituals in the temple through out the year.  The Brahmanical aversion to a Mlecha (Buddhist) holy place could be the reason for this, say researchers (Ravivarma) and local people.

southern shrine dedicated to Krishna, enshrining the Buddha relief in meditative posture beneath Bodhi tree. Built in simple Gaja Prishta style. Facing east and its northern door is marked “Sri Buddha”

Local people still believe that the temple was originally a Buddhist shrine.  Mr Rajappan Nair of Chandanaparambil narrated his memories and local lore about the temple.  It is interesting that local people still cherish the legends of Pallyvana Perumal and the Buddhist connection between Kilirur and Nilamperur.

Idol of Krishna closely resmbling a Boddhisatva in Ardha Padmasana. Buddha relief is on the other side of the backwall.

This last surviving Buddha image in a Kerala temple must be preserved for posterity and the temple and its rich and composite history must be conserved for the whole humanity who value the life and teachings of the compassionate one.  Further studies and excavations in the premises may recover precious details regarding the Sramana past of Kerala and its democratic and egalitarian cultures.

Remembering local history: Rajappan Nair near Kilirur temple. 28 Dec 2011


Buddha bronze in Mahayana style with the ornamental crown Ushnisha and Bodhi tree in the backdrop Prabha, now worshiped as Krishna in Kilirur temple, Kottayam.

Buddha bronze in Mahayana style with the ornamental crown Ushnisha and Bodhi tree in the backdrop Prabha, now worshiped as Krishna in Kilirur temple, Kottayam. Also mark the Chin Mudra and Triratna Mudra with the hands.


Ajunarayanan. Keralathile Buddhamatha Paramparyam.

Jayaprakas. Padmanabhaswamy Kshetram Arku Swantham?

Ilamkulam. Keralacharithrathinte Irulatanja Edukal.

Panikasery. Keralam Pathinanjum Pathinarum Noottandukalil.

Puthusery. Kerala Charithrathinte Atisthana Rekhakal.

Ravivarma.  Pandathe Malayalakara.

Sadasivan. A Social History of India. Google Book available online: