Tag Archives: Avalokiteswara Boddhisatva

Boddhisatva Idols from Kerala: Modification of Utariya into Sacred Thread and the Problems of Misrepresentation

Boddhisatva idol at Vayalvaram, Chempazhanti. Recovered and installed by John Dharma Teerthar some 75 years ago. Mark the minimalist Utariya over the left shoulder.

Boddhisatva idol at Vayalvaram, Chempazhanti. Recovered and installed by John Dharma Teerthar some 75 years ago. Mark the minimalist Utariya over the left shoulder.

The Boddhisatva idol in a deeply engrossed meditating stance at Chempazhanthy by the birthplace and natal hut of Narayana Guru has become a familiar figure to most of the visitors. It was recovered in early 20th century by his disciple Swami John Dharma Teertha (formerly Chatanattu Parameswara Menon) from an ancient Buddhist site close to Vayalvaram house (the region including Patira Pally, Kunnam Pally Konam and Ilaya Pally Konam) and installed at the birth place of his spiritual master; often called the “Kerala Buddha” and “Sri Narayana Buddha” by poet disciples like Sahodarn Ayyapan and Pandit Karupan.

Boddhisatva idol from Karapuram/Chertala. Raja Leelasana posture, hairdo and ornaments are marked features

Boddhisatva idol from Karapuram/Chertala. Raja Leelasana posture, hairdo and ornaments are marked features. Now displayed in Krishnapuram palace state archaeology museum with the tag “Sasta”

In Kayikara the birthplace of another disciple of Nanu Asan, that of poet N Kumaranasan, stands another granite idol that joins hands in lotus bud posture in life size. It is also identified by scholars as a Buddhist idol depicting the Siddha or Upasaka figure in Tantric Buddhism or Vajrayana that sustained in Kerala till 14th and 15th centuries in disguise struggling through Hindu Bhakti waves of Saivism and Vaishnavism. It is also called Tozhuvan or the one who is in the lotus bud pose joining the hands in a devotional stoop. There are place names all over Kerala involving the Tozhuvan affix like Tozhuvankode, Tozhuvanur, Tozhuvankonam etc. The point is that all the three major schools of Buddhism have their sculptural relics and archeological remains in Kerala in transformed ways. The Teravada Buddhas in Mavelikara, Karumady, Kayamkulam etc are associated to the early Anuradhapura style unique to Elam and Keralam. The Mahayana Boddhisatva idols are converted to Muruka, Ayyappa and Kanna in current Hidnu temples from the middle ages onwards. The Vajrayana Siddhas and Tara Devis began to be increasingly called as Tozhuvans and Hindu Bhagavatis in the post middle ages. In the sixteenth century Chennas wrote Tantra Samuchayam and absorbed the Tantric Buddhist deities into the Tantric Brahmanic mode, eventually completing the take over.

Vajrayana idol at Kayikara Asan Memorial. Locally called Tozhuvan. A Siddha/Upasaka figure in Vajrayana in Kerala. Jan 2015

Vajrayana idol at Kayikara Asan Memorial. Locally called Tozhuvan. A Siddha/Upasaka figure in Vajrayana in Kerala. Author with idol, Jan 2015

The recent discovery and identification of two Boddhisatva idols in Thrissur and Ernakulam districts in late 2014, are important and vital connections in understanding the Hinduization of early Buddhist shrines and idols in Kerala. The Avalokiteswara idols are crucial links in the transformation and modification to the Hindu Sasta cult a combination of Saiva, Vaishnava compromise done on Buddhist and Jain deities.
Avittatur is a village near Irinjalakuda in Thrissur district of Kerala. Irinjalakuda as the name shows was a Jain and Buddhist centre till the middle ages say historians. Alavattam or ceremonial white whisk made with Yak hair and rounded majestic hold along with Mutukuda or sacred jewelled umbrella are key Sramana icons safely embedded in the place name.

Boddhisatva idol recovered from Ayyanchira pond in Avittatur in late 2014. Photo by Abi Tumboor. Now in state archeological museum Thrissur.

Boddhisatva idol recovered from Ayyanchira pond in Avittatur near Irinjalakuda in late 2014. Photo by Abi Tumboor. Now in state archeological museum Thrissur.

Local legend has it that Irinjalakuda was ruled till the middle ages by a dalit (after the middle ages) ruler called Ayyan Chirukandan. A sword related to his life is still preserved in the Nambadan household nearby. Ayyan or Ayyar is an old Tamil word for the Buddha in ancient Tamilakam (Chera, Chola and Pandya lands) as Putan, Neelan, Kuttan, Tankan, Ponnan, Nanappan, Nagappan etc. There are several Ayyan Kavus and Putan Kavus in Kerala.

Avittatur or Agasteswara Putur has its etymological origin in Avalokiteswara Putur. Avalokiteswara Boddhisatva of Vajrayana was called Akatiya in old Tamil and that is why the ancient seat of Avalokiteswara at the summit of Potiyil Malai is called Akatiya Malai. This was later Hinduized as Agastya Malai and Agastya Koodam in the middle ages. In this analogy Agsteswaram is Akatiyesaram or Avalokiteswaram and Putur is just the village of Putan or Putar or the Buddha. This double signifiers related to Vajrayana or Tantric Buddhism (Avalokiteswara) and Teravada or early Buddhism (Putur) that was implanted here by the missionaries of Asoka in BC 3rd century show the prolonged connection with different schools of Buddhism over the ages; i.e. from BC 3rd century to the middle ages up to the 14th or 15th century. On the eastern coast in Nagapattinam and Tanjavur Buddhism was thriving even in the 16th century. Some of the Pallys or Viharas and Stupas on the Coromandal coast stood up to the British colonial times in 18th century.

Mavelikara Buddha. Related to early Teravada in Anuradhapura style. Recovered from the marsh near current Hindu temple and installed by the road in 1923 by the people.

Mavelikara Buddha. Related to early Teravada Buddhism in Kerala in Anuradhapura style. Recovered from the marsh near current Hindu temple and installed by the road in 1923 by the people. See the old style normal Utariya above left shoulder that shrunk in later Vajrayana age.

In late 2014 a granite idol was recovered from the ancient pond called Ayyan Chira at Avittatur. Ayyan Chira is named after Ayyan Chirukandan the old (dalit) Buddhist chief of the region. This looked more than a millennium old and was similar to the Boddhisatva idol recovered a few years ago from Karapuram or Chertala in Alapuzha district of Kerala. Prof P O Purushotaman in his book Buddhante Kalpadukal (Thrissur: Current, 2008) or the Footprints of the Buddha has given the clear image of this idol and identified it as Avalokiteswara Boddhisatva. His consort Tara Devi the female Vajrayana deity was also recovered from Karapuram. Prof Purushotaman has printed both the images to prove his point beyond doubt in the book. But unfortunately Kerala Archeology Dept Museum at Krishnapuram palace exhibits the Avalokiteswara idol with the tag “Sasta.” Sasta or Dharma Sasta is a synonym for the Buddha, but it is also a later Hinduized name that is used for Ayyappa. Actually as we have seen earlier Ayyappa is a Hinduized later version of Avalokiteswara.

Tara demonized as Yakshi in Trikariyur temple. Similar idols of Tara are found in Yakshi and Rakshas modifications in Kulatupuzha and Neelamperur temples.

Tara demonized as Yakshi in Trikariyur temple. Similar idols of Tara are found in Yakshi and Rakshas modifications in Kulatupuzha and Neelamperur temples.

Prof Purushotaman clearly mentions the distinctions of the Avalokiteswara idols. Elaborate hairdo, ornaments on the hair, ear, neck, hands, waist, feet etc. form a distinct feature of the Avalokiteswara figures. The seating posture of Raja Leelasana or Ardha Padmasana also connects it to the Buddhist idols in Vajrayana and Mayana practices in north India, Tibet, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Korea or Japan. The stylized and decorated minimal Utariya is often misrepresented as the Brahman sacred thread by the Kerala Archeology Dept and the idols are interpreted as the Hinduized Sasta and belonging to the post 13th century period. But actually as the stone type, chiselling and iconography reveal these are older than the middle ages and could date back to 7th – 9th century AD and are Buddhist in iconography and cultural markers. Local researchers and historians like Abhi Tumbur, Saifudeen and Krishnakumar were instrumental in the current identification of the idol as a Buddhist one, through elaborate discussions through the social media. Unfortunately it is handed over to the state Archeology Dept Museum Thrissur and they are yet to put it on display. As per the RIT information their iconographic Lakshana texts prompt them to term it also as “Sasta” with the “sacred thread.”

Boddhisatva idol recovered in Dec 2014 from Ponjasery Pukulam temple pond. See the elaborate hairdo, ornaments and minimalist Utariya in true Tantric Vajrayana style.

Boddhisatva idol recovered in Dec 2014 from Ponjasery Pukulam temple pond. See the elaborate hairdo, ornaments and minimalist Utariya in true Tantric Vajrayana style.

In December 2014 another similar Boddhisatva image was found in the pond near the Pukulam temple near Ponjasery on the Aluva-Perumbavur road. Mr Ismayil Pallypram a local historian and researcher was instrumental in bringing it to the media discourse. The priest himself confirmed that the thread like thing over the left shoulder is not a Brahmanical sacred thread or Punool but a minimal Utariya and the idol could be Buddhist in origin. The tie of knot is visible on the minimal rounded Utariya like the ones worn by people enacting the post cremation rituals even today. The same rope like Utariya is also visible on the Boddhisatva idol at Vayalvaram house. Elaborate hairdo, ornaments, seating posture and the abandoned state in the pond below the current Hindu temple confirm the Buddhist identity of the sculpture. It is also split into two at the waist. Local residents and temple committee members like Mr Aji also informed that he has seen the stone pedestal of the idol in his younger age lying in the muddy pond.

Ancient Naga deities in a Kavu or sacred shrine in Pala. Conservationist culture of early Buddhism is reflected in Kavu culture. Kavu means Kanyakavu or the nuns who composed Terigadha.

Ancient Naga deities in a Kavu or sacred shrine in Pala. Conservationist culture of early Buddhism is reflected in Kavu culture. Kavu means Kanyakavu or the Boudha nuns who composed texts like Terigadha.

It must be remembered that all the Buddhist idols so far recovered from Kerala were unearthed from temple ponds or marshes close to current caste Hindu temples. Mavelikara, Kayamkulam, Karumady, Pattanam etc are examples of such chanced recovery from Hindu temple vicinity. Utariya, Ushnisha and Jwala are the common markers of the early Teravada Buddhas in Anuradhapura style in Kerala. But in Mayana and Vajrayana Boddhisatva idols we have much more charming and dashing male seductive figures with moving postures, ornamental elaborate hairdo and jewellery. The misinterpretation and hideous misrepresentation of the minimalistic short Utariya as sacred thread is the covetous strategy through which caste Hindu lobbies in the state department of Archeology are reappropriating the sculptures to the Hindu fold. It must be remembered by the people that it was the same Savarna caste Hindu forces that assimilated most of the early Jain and Buddhist shrines and idols as numerous Hindu deities with minor modifications in names and attire. It must also be remembered that most of the invaluable icons of the Sramana age were abandoned and disposed in rivers and water bodies by the Brahamanical priestocracy in the ritual called Nimajjana by saying that an old broken idol is an evil omen.

Boddhisatva idol recovered from Pukulam temple pond at Ponjasery near Aluva. Broken into two and probably disposed in the ancient Chira or tank with perennial spring.

Boddhisatva idol recovered from Pukulam temple pond at Ponjasery near Aluva. Broken into two and probably demolished and disposed in the ancient Chira or tank with perennial spring that watered the surrounding paddy fields.

When people recover these deposed, demolished, fissured and disposed idols again from the soil and identify their true Amana or Chamana heritage; Brahmanism and Savarna Hindu ideologues in the media and state cultural institutions again mark them with a Hindu hegemonic tag and a sacred thread that re-entangles them in the metaphysics of the second sacred birth. But the mockery is that the same forces of the sacred thread are reluctant to give the same dubious Brahmanical tag thread to the home returnees in their reconversion programme called Ghar Vapsi. The Maharajs and Sadhvis have made it clear that the home returnees will return to their old Sudra or Chandala Kulas and Gotras. It is high time that the people must realize such mass deceptions and cultural hegemony parading as “sacred religion and tradition” and reject the growing Hinduization of public treasures and archaeological relics.

Mangaladevi Kottam: Kannaki, Patini, Mangalamadan Tai and the Historical Linkages between Keralam and Tamilakam

Mangaladevi Kottam in Kumaly on Chitra Paurnami day, 25 apl 2013

Mangaladevi Kottam in Kumaly on Chitra Paurnami day, 25 apl 2013.  The Pandya style stone temple could be built in 9th century after the Saivite conquest of Sambandhar and his rabid legion who persecuted the Chamana nuns.

Mangaladevi temple or Mangala Madan Tai Kottam is an ancient shrine eructed in the memory of a brave and legendary Tamil woman by the ancient Chera emperor of Keralam in the second century AD. Mangaladevi or Mangalamadan Tai is an early Tamil and Buddhist south Indian cult signifying an auspicious female guardian deity from the beginning of the common era.  The cult of Mangalamadan Tai flourished with Buddhist popular culture and gave birth to plenty of place names all over the peninsular India as in Koramangala, Mangalapuram, Neryamangalam, Kotamangalam etc.

The grassland shola peak on which Mangalamadantai Kottam is situated at the Kerala-Tamilaka border.  The forest watch tower and shola are visible from miles afar.  A view from Kerala side of the mountain.

The grassland shola peak (1337m) on which Mangalamadantai Kottam is situated at the Kerala-Tamilaka border. The forest watch tower and shola are visible from miles afar. A view from Kerala side of the mountain. The winding road is also seen.

The current Mangaladevi temple or Madantai Kottam in true ancient Tamil Amana (Jain and Buddhist) parlance, near Kumaly in Idukki district of Kerala close to the border of Tamil Nadu on a high grassland shola peak at around 1337 m above sea level overlooking the Kambam valley and Meghamalai dales has more than 2000 years of history to tell. It is 15km from Kumaly town which is on the Kollam – Kottayam – Theni National Highway.

People struggling to get into the Kannaki shrine at Mangaladevi Kottam on Chitra Paurnami day, 25 apl 2008.

People from all over south India struggling to get into the Kannaki shrine at Mangaladevi Kottam on Chitra Paurnami day, 25 apl 2008.  The Tamil women use yellow and green clothes for this exquisite pilgrimage to the top of the Western Ghats at 1337 m.  They have also formed a volunteer group to handle the rush at the Kannaki shrine. Yellow marigolds and green Neem and mango leaves decorate.

This unique grassland shola is within the PTR or Periyar Tiger Reserve that is ecologically sensitive and extremely crucial for the sustenance of life and drinking water down in central and south Kerala apart from being the last asylum of the Asiatic Tiger in South India. The grassland sholas and fern groves are also home to rare and endangered flora and fauna, most of them medicinal.

The Pandya style of architecture is visible in the granite stone temple complex at Mangaladevi Kottam.

The Pandya style of architecture is visible in the granite stone temple complex at Mangaladevi Kottam. Can be dated to 9th century and the Saivite take over under Sambandhar and his militia who specialized in persecuting the Buddhist nuns.

According to researchers and authors like S N Sadasivan this organic Tai Shola or mother of all sholas as in the Nilgriris was a Buddhist nunnery in the beginning of the common era on a great trade route and mountain pass that connected the Pandya kingdom with the Chera lands across the western ghats.

Kannaki idol in Mangaladevi Kottam, Kumaly.  Tamil women are leading the rituals even today.  25 apl 2013.

Kannaki idol in Mangaladevi Kottam, Kumaly. Tamil women are leading the rituals even today though the priest is a boy. 25 apl 2013. A passing shot in the rush with one hand.

Kannaki the legendary heroine of sage Ilango Adikal’s Tamil epic Silapatikaram, after cursing and metaphorically burning the city of Madurai in her ire against the king who unethically punished her husband Kovalan (accusing him of stealing the anklets of the queen ) by ripping of her breast, went north west along the banks of river Vaigai in the Kambam valley and disappeared into the Sahyadri’s according to legend and the epic.

Devotees mostly women and dalitbahujans from Tamilakam and Keralam thronging in to get a glimpse of their ancient heroine Kannaki as Patini as installed by Cheran Chenguttuvan in 2nd C. AD. Chitra Paurnami day 25 apl 2013.

Devotees mostly women and dalitbahujans from Tamilakam and Keralam thronging in to get a glimpse of their ancient heroine Kannaki as Patini as installed by Cheran Chenguttuvan in 2nd C. AD.     A historic shot on Chitra Paurnami day 25 apl 2013.

The grassland shola peaks near Kumaly then was known as Vindhamalai among the Tamil people.  The southern mountain is still called Meghamalai.  The existence of the Chamana monastery or lamasery was known to the people of the Pandian  planes as far as Madurai during the early common era.  This peak is still visible from Theni district.

The decorated southern gateway to the Kottam.  Two big banana plants in fruition are used in typical south Indian style along with mango and Neem leaves and yellow marigolds.

The decorated southern gateway to the Kottam. Two big banana plants in fruition are used in typical south Indian style along with mango and Neem leaves and yellow marigolds.

It must also be remembered that Ilango Adigal was the younger brother of the Chera chief Changuttuvan who consecrated the temple in the memory of Kannaki as Patini or the chaste wife. Kodungallur was the capital of Cheran were Adikal composed his epic in the monastery at Matilakam or Tiru Kunavayil Kottam.  Both these enlightened sons of Kerala were the biological sons of the Chera emperor Nedum Cheral Atan.  The surname Atan is a regional form of the Arhat the Buddhist sage.

The eastern slopes of the Western Ghats that go down to the Kambam Theni valley in Tamilakam: A view to the north east of Mangaladevi Kottam near Kumaly

The eastern slopes of the Western Ghats that go down to the Kambam Theni valley in Tamilakam: A view to the north east of Mangaladevi Kottam near Kumaly

Patini cult was popular among the Buddhist laity in the early common era.  There were Patini installations in Kumaly, Kodungallur and Atukal by Cheran Chenguttuvan.  The Patini or Kannaki cult was also popular in Tamraparni or Sri Lanka then and the Muventar or the south Indian ruling trio consisting of Chera, Chola and Pandya kings were also close to the Sri Lankan kings in culture and kinship.  That is why Gajabahu I (c. 114 – 136 CE) the king of Ceylon was also present during this installation at Kumaly and Kodungallur (Sadasivan 2008).

The remaining outer wall of Mangaladevi Kottam that was finely built.  A woman from Tamil Nadu sits a while after the 2 hour long queue to get in. 25 apl 2013.

The remaining outer wall of Mangaladevi Kottam that was finely built. A woman from Tamil Nadu sits a while after the 2 hour long queue to get in. 25 apl 2013.

Brahmanism captured these Buddhist nunneries and monasteries known as Kottam, Kuti, Vattam, Vihara, Kavu, Thopu, Thottam etc. through the strategic use of subaltern energy that was cunningly utilized in the Bhakti movement as in Saivism and Vaishnaism in Tamilakam and Keralam.   These movements were initiated as democratic liberalizations but they actually contributed to the expansion of the Brahmanical Hindu world among the lower strata by violently converting Amana sects and heterodox sites in south India.

Periyar lake as seen from Mangaladevi Kottam. A view to the south east from the southern gateway of the Kottam.  Most parts of the Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR) are also seen here.

Periyar lake as seen from Mangaladevi Kottam in the left corner in haze. A view to the south east from the southern gateway of the Mangala Madantai Kottam. Most parts of the Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR) are also seen here.

In the 9th century AD during the heyday of Saivism, Sambandha Moorty’s (Jnana Sambandhar) rabid legion of assassins conquered this shrine at Kumaly and converted it violently to a Siva temple installing the huge rock Linga, the Amman or Parvati and Ganapati. Some pre existing Buddhist idols were reconsecrated as these new deities.  They did this conquest by violently executing the Buddhist monks with tridents and raping and torturing the nuns in unimaginable barbaric ways.  But fortunately the Patini or Kannaki shrine was spared for some reason and is still surviving as a sub shrine within the big but ruined temple complex atop the grassland.  It is also possible that the people from Tamilakam recovered the Kannaki idol and cult and reinstalled the practice again after the hey day of Saivism.

Taradevi bronze in an antique shop in Kumaly

Taradevi bronze in Rajalilasana in an antique shop in Kumaly.  She is the only female Boddhisatva of compassion.  Such Mahayana deities got “Modified” into Hindu Devis and goddesses after the 8-12 century Saiva/Vaishnava Bhakti frenzies unleashed by the hidden agenda of Brahmanism to take over Buddhist shrines and Viharas.

The Patini installation by Chenguttuvan was in AD second century according to the history and chronology of Chera rulers.  The Tamil people as well as the Bahujans or Avarnas from Kerala used to climb up the western ghats every year on the festival day of the Chitra Paurnami.  As it is a disputed location on the border; Kerala and Tamil Nadu are conducting the festival collectively now with official co-operation.

Tamil and Kerala pilgrims atop the Mangalamadantai Kottam near Kumaly on the day of Chitra Paurnami, 25 apl 2013.

Tamil and Kerala pilgrims atop the Mangalamadantai Kottam near Kumaly on the day of Chitra Paurnami, 25 apl 2013. See the yellow-green floral-leaf decoration and clothes of the devotees mixed with white Jasmin flowers.

But there is every possibility that this ancient Tamil Buddhist shrine could be gradually Hinduized and Brahmanized and Sanksritized in a covetous fashion.  Brahman priests are at the helm and the Parivar outfits are gaining momentum in this Sangham age monument that represents the true secular tradition of south India.  Only the Kannaki shrine is with the Avarna and  Tamil people now. Women and Bahujans are leading the rituals there while half naked Brahmans are playing the priestly  role in other shrines of Siva, Parvati and Ganapati.  At least 30,000 people mostly women and dalitbahujans or the Avarna visited the mountain shrine this year on 25 April 2013 from Tamilakam and Keralam.

Jeeps plying from Kumaly to Mangaladevi shrine through mountain roads over the grasslands on the Kerala-Tamil border.

Jeeps plying from Kumaly to Mangaladevi shrine through mountain roads over the grasslands on the Kerala-Tamil border.

There is also a conspiracy to make this temple something like the current Sabarimala that was originally the abode of Avalokiteswara Boddhisatva (Ayyappa) of Mahayana Buddhism prior to 8th century.  The Saivites and Vaishnavites who conquered the shrine at Sabarimala under the strategic meta narrative of Brahmanism got into a pact and made it a half Saivite and half Vaishnavaite shrine, a queer combination of Appa and Ayya according to their weird etymological interpretation.  This will be catastrophic because the region is in Periyar Tiger Reserve and is part of the most crucial eco screen preventing the dry weather from Tamil planes into Kerala.  The Pullumedu disaster and other losses to the grasslands in Sabarimala season must also be remembered and well pondered.

Before the big northern shrine now enshrining a Linga at Mangalamadantai Kottam with Anirudh Raman on Chitra Paurnami day, 25 apl 2013.

Before the big northern shrine now enshrining a Linga at Mangalamadantai Kottam with Anirudh Raman on Chitra Paurnami day, 25 apl 2013.

More over the ancient Sangam shrine without any caste and gender hierarchy and untouchability and purity practice is now being gradually converted into a Brahmanic Hindu temple of high purity and pollution riddles and Savarna elitism.  They are starting with a Savarna aversion for footwear in this archeological and historical site as in many Savarna villages in Tamil Nadu and Savarna temples in Kerala now and will end up in Dhoti and the bare breast very soon.  They are going back to the pre-renaissance days where struggles were required to cover breasts in public.

A herd of wild elephants at Tekady, on the banks of the Periyar lake reservoir inside the PTR, 26 apl 2013.

A herd of wild elephants at Tekady, on the banks of the Periyar lake reservoir inside the PTR, 26 apl 2013.

The Brahmanic Tantris, Melsantis and Kizhsantis will soon drop in out of the blue and will make it another Sabarimala where millions are given as donation to get a lower division priestly post every year.  It is a Brahmanical conspiracy to squeeze the money from the Bahujans who offer everything they can to the shrine in the name of faith and religion.

A self take with left hand with Mr Das as researcher and young scholar who reached the summit on the day of Chitra Paurnami.

A self take with left hand with Mr Das a researcher and young scholar who reached the summit on the day of Chitra Paurnami.

In Malabar they are now forcing the temple goers to remove the pants and shirts and soon they will come down to the inner clothes.  If current Brahmanical Hinduization goes unchecked by the people and their organizations  Mangalamadantai Kottam will become another Sabarimala and a new environmental and cultural disaster in the present and near future that cannot be corrected ever after.  It is high time for the policy makers and people’s elected bodies to think, discuss and act.

Saffron flags coming up on the Mangaladevi top, 25 apl 2013.

Saffron flags coming up on the Mangaladevi top, 25 apl 2013.