Buddha at Vellilapally in Kottayam District of Kerala

In early March 2019 a Buddha head in stone was recovered from Vellilapally near Ramapuram and Amanakara in Kottayam district of Kerala. It was found while the workers were making a stone wall. It was part of an older wall. There is a Dhammasasta shrine nearby. This place is called Pallykandam or the field of the Pally or Vihara in Vellilapally village. Vellilapally was the original name of the whole place now known as Ramapuram. Brahman settlements came up durng the middle ages.

Buddha recovered from Vellilapally a few years ago, now at Trichur Archaeology Museum. Photo from web/social media

A similar life size Buddha sculpture in seated posture with broken hand was recovered earlier from the same spot in Pallykandam in Vellilapally and is currently on display in Trissur archeological museum.

Buddha head recovered from Vellilapally in Kottayam district of Kerala in March 2019 at Hill Palace Museum. Life size and more than one feet in height.  Photo: Ajay Sekher 
Buddha head recovered from Vellilapally in Kottayam district of Kerala in March 2019 at Hill Palace Museum. Life size and more than one feet in height. Photo: Ajay Sekher 

The head seems to be part of a similar life size sculpture. It alone is more than one feet in height. The long earlobe and Ushnisha or hairdo is clear that are characteristics of the Buddha sculptures. It is broken in the back and was probably connected to a larger sculptural unit with hallow like paraphernalia as the background or pedestal. In hairdo it is similar to the Buddha at Kayamkulam Krishnapuram palace museum. The resemblance of Gandhara and Kalinga styles are visible. It may be related to C E fifth or sixth century like the ones at Trissur and Kayamkulam museums. The facial features are obscured in long tear and wear underground or badly mutilated so that it is unnoticed.

Buddha head recovered from Vellilapally in Kottayam district of Kerala in March 2019 at Hill Palace Museum. Life size and more than one feet in height.  Photo: Ajay Sekher 
Vellilapally Buddha head at Tripunitura Hill Palace Museum. See the hairdo similar to Kayamkulam Buddha having Gandhara and Kalinga iconographic influences. Also broken at the back and was part of a larger sculptural assemble. Photo: Ajay Sekher

It was recovered and taken to the Hill Palace Museum at Tripunitura by Kerala Archaeology Department. It must also come to display with the correct tags at the earliest. The recently discovered Boddhisatva idols from Ponjasery in 2015 and Avittatur in 2014 taken by Kerala Archaeology Department are not yet displayed and are lying hidden in the stock room. It is now evident that Vellilapally and Kottayam district in particular was an important cultural location of Buddhism till the middle ages. Place names like Amanakara, Marangattupally, Pandapally etc are proving the presence of Amana or Sramana missionaries and their educational establishments like Pally and Pallykoodam.

Vellilapally Buddha at Pallykandam in early March 2019. See the long earlobe and the erased or mutilated face.

Theyyam: Critique on Patronage and Appropriation by Prof M Dasan

Theyyam: Patronage, Appropriation, Interpolation by M Dasan (Kannur: Kannur University, 2012).  Cover image suggestive of bondage and hegemony.
Theyyam: Patronage, Appropriation, Interpolation by M Dasan (Kannur: Kannur University, 2012). Cover image suggestive of bondage and hegemony.

Theyyam the ancient ritual and popular art form of Malabar is a cultural expression of the dalits and other contested sections of the stratified society.  The subaltern classes used it as a strategic aesthetic and spiritual act and articulation against caste oppression and barbaric violence unleashed by the caste lords and feudal patriarchy.

A Vellattam at Pulikunnu Kavu, Kasaragod. 2010
A Vellattam (a pro or pre Theyyam) at Pulikunnu Kavu, Kasaragod. 2010

But over the ages, feudalism, Brahmanical values and Savarna patriarchy had appropriated it and Hinduized it through its elitist patronage.  It is now being used as a site of interpolation and cultural subordination, says Prof M Dasan in his latest critical study Theyyam: Patronage, Apropriation, Interpolation.

Vishnu Murti at Pulikunnu Kavu, Kasaragod, 2010.  Vishnu Murti was originally Palantayi Kannan a Tiya boy murdered by a Kurup the caste lord.  Likewise the Pottan Theyyam originally a Paraya man became an incarnation of Siva in the elite appropriation later.
Vishnu Murti at Pulikunnu Kavu, Kasaragod, 2010. Vishnu Murti was originally Palantayi Kannan a Tiya boy murdered by a Kurup the caste lord. Likewise the Pottan Theyyam originally a Paraya man who challenged caste elitism and untouchability became an incarnation of Siva in the elite appropriation later.

The dynamic performance of Theyyam and its spectacle have always fascinated me as I spent my whole childhood from infancy to standard six in Kannur the heartland of Theyyam and Thira. My parents who taught in Government Schools in Malabar were no longer at ease with my Theyyam-craze.   As a young lad I used to scoot to Kaliyattams in the eve from my home defying the parents.  I spent a lot of sleepless nights by the Kolams and Kavus.  So this work by Prof Dasan is personally special to me as an ardent and committed Theyyam goer and a fan of its visual culture and music.

Theyyam performance at Pulikunnu Kavu, Kasaragod, 2010.  A unique shrine on the northern bank of river Chandragiri.  Took it while working in Govt College, Kasaragod.
Theyyam performance at Pulikunnu Kavu, Kasaragod, 2010. A unique sacred grove and shrine on the northern bank of river Chandragiri near the estuary. Took it while working in Govt College, Kasaragod druing 2010-11.

The Theyyam now called Vishnu Moorti was originally called Palantayi Kannan. Kannan was a Tiya boy brutally killed by a feudal lord Kurup and he was hailed as a local hero and martyr through the ritual.  But now the very subaltern or Avarna hero has been described and declared as an incarnation of Vishnu the central God of Hindu Brahmanism.

Likewise Pottan Theyyam an expression of the caste critique by a Chandala/Avarna is categorized as an incarnation of Siva himself.  The caste critique and the blunder of Sankara all vanish into thin air, argues Prof Dasan.  This is the power of overnight appropriation by the Hindu hegemonic discourse, something Sahodaran Ayyappan in early 20th century described as the equivocal power of Brahmanism to demonize god and render the demon god instead.  The tyranny and fascism of the narrative power and the omnipotent textuality of internal imperialism are exposed in these brilliant and historically informed critical elaborations.

Ali Theyyam at Pulikunnu Kavu, Kasaragod, 2010.  One of the rare Muslim Theyyams in Malabar.
Ali Theyyam at Pulikunnu Kavu, Kasaragod, 2010. One of the rare Muslim Theyyams in Malabar.  The Thotam (chant) goes like; “Pallyilanenkilum Pallyarayilanenkilum…”  Pally is mosque and Pallyara is the Theyyam shrine.  Both originally connote to the Pali and Chamana past of Buddhism in Kerala.

The book is published by Kannur University (Kannur: 2012). It is prized Rs 300 and available with the Kannur University. It includes theoretical and empirical analyses of the subject  in a multi-disciplinary accent.  The book is a joy to read and to admire the well printed images, the hybrid cultural contexts of the ritual and its appropriation by hegemonic discourses.  It includes numerous color photos and illustrations that captivate the common reader and even children.  The book is well conceived and designed to suit global reading public and researchers in the field of culture, society and politics.  It is also a critique of ritual performance in Kerala and a theoretical work on ritual and hegemony in Malabar in particular.

A Kutty Chathan (little Sastha or boddhisatva) Theyyam being performed in National Theatre Fest 2011 at Calicut.
A Kutty Chathan (little Sastha or boddhisatva) Theyyam being performed in National Theatre Fest 2011 at Calicut.  A beacon into the Buddhist connection .

Prof Dasan traces the history of the proto types of the Theyyam from the Sangam age onwards.  He connects it with the engravings and rock art in Edakal caves in Wayanad.  His critique and cultural historiography are deeply engaging and insightful.  The cover that illuminatingly suggests the elitist patronage and bondage using the paraphernalia of Theyyam done by Dr Sreejith Krishnan is powerful and suggestive.  The book includes a detailed bibliography, index and glossary of Malayalam key words and pronunciation.

theyyam,manjeswar 137

The first chapter traces the origin and transformation of Theyyam in south India during the pre-Sangham age.  The socio cultural contexts of the ritual art are discussed in the second chapter.  The third one explores the Savarna feudal patronage extended to the cultural expression.  The fourth chapter analyzes the appropriation of Theyyam and its legends by the dominant elite culture through gradual coercion and epistemic violence.  The fifth one discusses the mis-interpretation of Theyyam and its myths by the elitist forces and upper strata of the caste society.

Green Room of Theyyam
Green Room of Theyyam

The book is a valuable contribution to the field of Theyyam studies, folklore, popular culture studies and dalit studies in the context of Malabar.  It is both an extension and critique of the early works by Dilip Menon and T V Chandran regarding the Sanskritization, Brahmanization and Hinduization of local shrines called Kavu, that is intensifying in Kerala, especially in Malabar.  In this sense it is a counter hegemonic and much needed work of resistance and a significant subversive act in the politics of culture.