Kodagu: Blue Mountains Beyond Malabar

// March 23rd, 2011 // Culture and Ecology

Grassland Sholas and Evergreen Forests of Kodagu near Bhagamandala

Kodagu or Coorg as it was re-christened by the British in the nineteenth century is a highland well up in the Western Ghats just to the east of Malabar in Kerala.  This southern district of Karnataka is inextricably linked to Malabar in terms of culture and ecology.

Beginning the long ride at dawn: Jaime near a tributary of Payaswini on the Bovikanam - Kanathur road. Flowering bamboos in horizon.

Almost all the rivers of Malabar originate from the misty blue mountains and evergreen forests and lemon green grassland sholas of Kodagu.  Most of the people in Malabar have their legends and myths about the Kodagu connection in their folklore and ritual practices like the Theyyam.  So Kodagu has a vital significance in the cultural and environmental paradigms of Kerala and Malabar in particular as Wayanadu, the Nilgiris or Iduki in relation to the mid and southern parts of Kerala.

Brief but bright colors of spring: A Vernal Hanging Parrot dangling from a flower bunch near Panathur

I toured some parts of this hill station with Jaime Chithra on bike as a getaway from the scorching heat of Kasaragod where I am working at present.  We began our journey on the morning of Saturday 19 March, 2011 and came back on the evening of the 20th.  We stayed at Kushalnagar on Saturday night.

Rich with honey and hues: Low-lying semi-evergreen forests at the foothills of Kodagu near Panathur

We went up the Western Ghat to Kodagu en-route Cherkala – Bovikanam – Kanathur – Kuttikol – Panathur – Bhagamandala and returned via Sullya and Jalsur.  While crossing the Panathoor bridge we got a wonderful view of the inviting cool mountains in the horizon and entered straight into the green shelter of the foothills.  Thanks to the greenery of Kodagu there is water in the streams down in Malabar.  But how long will it last; is an uncomfortable question that we really need to address.

A green damselfly in Talakavery wildlife santuary

The foothills and low-lying forests are vivid with a variety of hues at the onset of summer.  The transient spell of spring has caressed the green canopies with dexterous strokes of impressionistic colors and textures.  The forests are full of honey, bees and butterflies.  Albatrosses flutter around with Great Orange Tips and tiny Blues.

Wet even in summer: Evergreen forests of Talakavery sanctuary

As we ride up the sloppy mountain road to Bhagamandala the chill of the evergreen and wet forest is so soothing in the hot summer.  Some cascades and rivulets still have water enough to be poetic.  The green and tender foliage of wild trees, giant ferns and lichen are supple, serene and refreshing.

A Butterfly in Talakavery sanctuary, Bhagamandala

As we go up in elevation the forest pattern also changes from dry deciduous to semi evergreen to wet evergreen and finally to shola and grass lands.  It is a direct but gradual ascend of around 1000m.  We hardly notice the distance as we are immersed in the sea of green, yellow, orange and the chill of the wet forest.

Black-shouldered Kite in Bylakupe, Kushalnagar, Kodagu.

It is a sensational ride for bikers and small vehicles as the road is narrow but well aligned.  It becomes wider as we go up further towards Karnataka.  The forests of this western slope of the Western Ghat are part of Talacauvery Wildlife Sanctuary of Karnataka forest department.

A view of Kottanchery and Ranipuram ranges from Talakavery road, Bhagamandala

After sipping Coorg Coffee from Bhagamandala we visted Talakavery (Talacauvery) which is only 8km from there towards west.  The road is wide and well maintained and plenty of home-stays and honey and spice shops are on the way.

High altitude shola forests and blue mountains of Talakavery, Kodagu

At Talakavery or literally the head of river Kaveri (Cauvery), the grassland shola from which it springs up and flows down at around 1500m we had a great panoramic view of Kodagu topography.  All the high peaks of Kodagu are visible from here.

On the way to Talakavery: Jaime at 3700 MSL in Coorg. Bhagamandala and Madikeri in backdrop

It is also supposed to be one seat of Agasthya  in the south as Agasthya Kootam down south in the lower end of Western Ghat in Trivandrum district of Kerala.  It could be seen that Agasthya the Aryan sage who is said to be the author of Akathiam the first grammar text in Tamil (?)came and established his first power centre at Talakavery and then proceeded down to Agasthya Kootam which was the southern seat of Avalokiteswara in the Buddhist imagination of space and terrain in the peninsula.

Talakavery shrine from atop the spring peak

There is also a saying that Mayuravarman the Kadamba king brought Brahmans and their servant Sudras from Ahikshetram or Ahichatram north of the Ganges in the 4th or 5th century to Tulunadu and settled them down in Shivalli.  These Shivalli Brahmans of Tulunadu are still the priests of Talakavery temple.

Toy train station at Coorg

It is evident that the place is a critical spacial arena in the southward migration of Brahmans.  The Achar family of priests and the mere 2oo years of history of their associations with the Lingayat kings of Coorg and the legend behind the construction of Omkareswara temple (that of Brahma Rakshas) prove the infiltration strategies of Brahmanism in Kodagu.

The spring source of Kavery dried up in summer at 1500m.

It is clear that the invasion of Aryan Brahmanism through such conquering and converting god-men began well before Sankara who recolonized the North up to Kashmir in the 9th century by erasing the challenge of Jainism and Buddhism for ever by establishing pedagogic Brahmanic Maths across the peninsula.

Flowering trees and giant palms in zen garden, Golden Temple, Kodagu

Enlightened ones inside the Tibetan Buddhist temple complex, Kodagu.

This religious invasion was done with the royal patronage of kings and queens who were lured by the desire elements of Brahmanic Hinduism and its erotic and powerful semiotics and narrative textuality that were developed under knowledge/power monopolies of thousands of years after the devastation of the Dravidian civilizations of Indus valley around 1500 BC.  The erotica of Belur and Halebeedu in Hassan district are typical examples of colonizing the minds through sex and phallic cults and images.

A panoramic view of Kodagu peaks and forests from Talakavery zenith

It is also interesting to note that the place still has a spring and the ancient springs of South India were originally Jain or Buddhist places of worship up to the 8th or 9th century.  Any way it is reasonable to say that Kodagu as any other part of the peninsula was a Sramana territory at least for one thousand years.  The architectural and sculptural evidences of Jain images and iconography in the Government Museum at Madikeri prove this peaceful and ethical past of Kodagu.

Raja's Seat: A vantage and public park in Kodagu city

From Talakavery we came back to Bhagamandala and had our lunch at the Mayura restaurant of Karnataka tourism corporation.  They also have budget rooms for domestic tourists and even dormitories for lone travelers .  After resting there in the lap of shola forests for a few hours we began our ride to Madikeri or Mercara the capital of Coorg  district through beautiful shady roads amidst rolling plantations of coffee and pepper.

City of Coorg on rolling hills above 1500m.

The fragrance of coffee flowers and Parijatha blossoms, used as green fence at the edge of plantations fill the air and intoxicate even the insensitive traveler.  Blue winged parakeets are also fairly common in the coffee and pepper plantations.  There are also paddy fields and cardamom in Kodagu.

Paddy fields, Arracka and coffee/pepper plantations in the lap of shola grasslands in Kodagu

In the long 40km stretch we stopped midway at a small roadside eco-shop to savor honey lime to beat the slight heat of the slanting afternoon sun that turns biting in Coorg.  The city of Coorg is visible from miles away on a hill top as we approach it from west in the evening.  We spent a few hours in the garden at Raja’s Seat from where we got a splendid view of Kodagu and even parts of Kerala to the west.  We also found some enjoyment in the miniature narrow-gauge train near the garden.

Toy train experience in Kodagu near Raja's Seat

After taking a round in the city on the motorcycle we went straight to Kushalnagar some 30km east of Madikeri.  The road is excellent and wide and it passes through shola forests, evergreen and deciduous patches of forests and finally reaches semi-deciduous forests of Nisargadhama wild life santuary which is actually an archepelago in river Kavery with a lot of bamboo forests and real wildlife including spotted deer, wild boar, Gaur and elephant.

Bamboo blossoms in Kodagu

The bamboo forests are in bloom all over Kudagu and the Western Ghats.  It is a delight to the eye and tongue of the local population of living beings.  The bamboo rice is a medicinal and nutritious delicacy fed even to infants.

A wild elephant in the Nisargadhama jungle, close to the Madikeri - Mysore highway

On the way we could see a few wild elephants and a calf in the Nisargadhama wild life sanctuary some 20m close to the highway.  It was getting dark so I managed to click a few snaps in the dying light in a hurry and Jaime never allowed me to close in.

British cathedral now housing the Govt. Museum inside the fort, Kodagu

We stayed at Kushalnagar a small town having plenty of private lodges even run by Malayalis and in the early morning visited the Buddhist Golden Temple at Bylakupe just 7km from there which is the sole sacred space of the Tibetan Buddhist community in exile in South India.

Beauty of Tibetan architecture: A Buddhist temple in the Golden temple complex, Bylakupe, Kodagu

After spending a lot of time inside the temples that excel in Tibetan Buddhist architecture and outside in the beautifully and eco-spiritually designed zen gardens full of lawns, palms and flowering plants we came back to the hotel and packed for Madikeri again.

Sacred palmgrove in Golden temple complex, Bylakupe, Kodagu

Elephant calf close to the highway in Nisargadhama wildlife sanctuary, Kushalnagar

We reached Madikeri around noon and visited the 200 year old Omkareswara temple built by Lingaraja II of the Lingayat dynasty of Coorg.  It is built in Isalmic architectural style with domes and minarets.  It is interesting to note that the Lingayat people were originally Jains before the tenth century and their ancient heritage of inclusion and tolerance still survives.

A temple in Islamic architecture: Omkareswara temple at Coorg,1820.

Then we visited the historic fort originally built by the Lingayat rulers as a rammed mud citadel and later strengthened with stone by Tipu Sultan in the late 18th century and then governed by the British after the Srirangapatanam treaty of 1772.  The cathedral built by the British after the take over now houses the state museum.

Heroine stones featuring women warriors of Kodagu in state museum

It has a representative collection of ancient hero/heroine stones from various parts of Kodagu.  It is remarkable that most of them feature women warriors of Kodagu.  All the sculptures and idols up to 12 or 13th century are Jain and later articles are Saivite or Vaishnavite Hindu in religious affiliation.  This again proves the Jain and Sramana antiquity of ancient Kodagu.

Golden Temple: Tibetan Buddhism's second home in Bylakupe, Kodagu

After resting inside the cool cathedral which is more than 200 years old we started the return journey through Madikeri – Mangalore state highway via Sullya and Jalsoor.  Though some parts are under construction bikes and light vehicles could still pass through.

Yellow flowers in the Buddhist zen garden, Kodagu

Malabar Crested Lark in Bylakupe, Kodagu

In an hour we reached the lower range and rested by the side of river Payaswini originating from Kodagu with a view of the grass land sholas in the upper reaches and continued our journey along the banks of the river down to Sullya, Jalsoor, Adhur, Mulleriya and Bovikanam.  It was almost 8pm when we reached back to the heat of Vidyanagar in Kasaragod.  Thanks to my Kawasaki Avenger the 330km ride of two days was smooth and trouble free.

Before the gate of Golden Temple, Bylakupe, Kushalnagar, Kodagu.

A sparrow converting the fountain before the Golden Temple to a birdbath

Amusing and moving: The old engine of the toy train in Coorg

A goose in the zen garden of Buddhist temple, Bylakupe, Kodagu.

Architectural detail from Golden temple, Bylakupe, Kodagu

Garden birds in the lawn of Golden Temple

Flowering trees, shrubs and palms of the zen garden, GT, Kodagu

Cormorants nesting inside the Golden Temple, Kodagu

little buddhas at the Golden Temple, Kodagu

A Rose in the garden of GT, Kodagu

A mural inside the Golden Temple, Kodagu

The decorative door of GT, Kodagu

5 Responses to “Kodagu: Blue Mountains Beyond Malabar”

  1. കുടക് യാത്രാവിവരണം ഉപകാരപ്രദം.

  2. Praveen says:

    Hi,

    Where did you stay in Kushalnagar. Did you get a stay arranged by the temple authorities itself or was it a private one. Also how much did it cost for the stay?

    KIndly reply ASAP

    Thanks

    Praveen

  3. n.prabhakaran says:

    ഓംകാരേസ്വര ക്ഷേത്രത്തിന്റെ നിര്‍മാണത്തിന് പിന്നിലെ ഐതിഹ്യം എന്താണ് ?

  4. Jayarama Bhat says:

    A nice narration. But the prejudice against brahmins is to be condemned. Much of what happened long ago is actually not known. Your comments on conversion of jains to hinduism are funny. Do you expect anybody to accept this as plausible? This is attempting to rewrite known history!

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